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Machu Picchu and Tourism

Travel Information of Machu Picchu and Tourism

Machu Picchu, a city founded by the Incas around the 14th century, is nestled in a majestic natural setting of incomparable beauty between the Andean mountains and the Amazon jungle in Peru. Considered the most important material heritage bequeathed by the Inca Civilization. Its gigantic ramparts and ramps give the impression of having been carved into the escarpments of the rock 3 . These unique characteristics have motivated UNESCO to declare it Cultural and Natural Heritage of Humanity in 1983 under the name of “Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu”, within the category of “mixed assets” that represents exceptional natural and cultural values ​​of the world. . This designation of Machu Picchu as a World Heritage Site has transformed the city and the region into a world-renowned tourist destination for tourist attraction. In addition, Machu Picchu was recognized as one of the Wonders of the Modern World in 2007 and 2021, which further encouraged its international fame and the pressure to visit it with free walks in Inca archaeological sites Cusco – Peru.

Despite the historical, symbolic and tourist importance of Machu Picchu, it has serious management problems that prevent it from being considered as a model of tourist development for travelers. Several specialists draw attention to the critical situation and
worrying about Machu Picchu. For example, Martorell (2004) criticizes the lack of a planning system until 1998 and the poor management by the State based on political and economic interests. Zan and Lusiani (2011) state that Machu Picchu is one of the most controversial heritage sites in the world, because the economic wealth generated by the increase in visitors has not translated into an opportunity to finance the preservation of the site. For Arellano and Stuart (2010) Machu Picchu is considered an anti-model of sustainable development and its management, with the protection of UNESCO, does not take into account the
vulnerable populations that are affected by tourism development in Peru.

In this context, today Peru has become a tourist destination for national visits and important at the international level based mainly on the historical and cultural heritage, with the Cuzco – Machu Picchu axis, in the Andean region, an emblematic space and the main focus of tourist attraction, due to the concentration of the enormous pre-Hispanic and colonial legacy that is evidenced in imposing architectural and artistic monuments.

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